If you get error in Windows 7 or Windows 8:

Windows failed to start. A recent hardware or software change might have caused the issue after you install Windows Updates

Then in Windows 8/10 run Automatic Repair using preinstalled recovery options:

1.Boot to WinRE. To do this you must allow the system to fail the boot process three times.

2.From the Choose an option screen, tap or click Troubleshoot.

3.Next, tap or click the Advanced options, and then tap or click Automatic Repair.

Automatic Repair will launch and attempt to fix any issues that prevent Windows from loading.

In Windows 7:

Use the Last Known Good Configuration to start Windows

OR

Insert the Windows 7 installation disc or a system repair disc, and then shut down your computer. Restart your computer using the computer's power button. If prompted, press any key and then follow the instructions that appear. On the Install Windows page, or on the System Recovery Options page, choose your language and other preferences, and then click Next. If you're using the Windows installation disc, click Repair your computer.
6.Select the Windows installation you want to repair, and then click Next. On the System Recovery Options menu, click Startup Repair, and follow on-screen instructions.

Details at source: KB2674065.