W10 allows file names to contain most of the symbols that are defined in the Unicode Basic Latin block of characters (aka standard ASCII). A search of the internet did not yield any information on the collation sequence or sort order for file names containing the allowed symbols.
By creating, in an empty folder, a group of files each having one of the allowed symbols as its file name the collation sequence was determined empirically.
Having uncovered that information, it seemed appropriate to share it.
The table below contains the list of characters in the Unicode Basic Latin block that are allowed in W10 file names. The characters are listed in the collating order used by the W10 File Explorer when sorting files by file name, i.e. file names that begin with an ! (exclamation mark) will precede all other files in the list when the files in a folder are sorted in ascending order; file names that begin with a # (number sign) will follow those that begin with an ! and will precede those that begin with a $ (dollar sign); and so forth through the table.

- - - - - - - - Character - - - - (Hex) - - - - Unicode Value - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - Description
! 0021 exclamation mark
# 0023 number sign
$ 0024 dollar sign
% 0025 percent sign
& 0026 ampersand
( 0028 left parenthesis
) 0029 right parenthesis
, 002C comma
. 002E full stop, period
' 0027 apostrophe
- 002D hyphen, minus
; 003B semicolon
@ 0040 commercial at sign
[ 005B left square bracket
] 005D right square bracket
^ 005E circumflex accent
_ 005F low line, underscore
` 0060 grave accent
{ 007B left curly bracket
} 007D right curly bracket
~ 007E tilde
+ 002B plus sign
= 003D equal sign
0-9 0030 0039 digit zero through digit nine
A-z 0041 005A, 0061 007A capital letter A through Z small letter a through z
Notes:
  • The last occurrence of a period in a file name is interpreted as the extension separator, thus any text following the final period is considered to be the file type.
  • File Explorer does not differentiate between capital letters and small letters in file names, i.e. A and a are considered to be the same character.
  • W10 version 1909 was used to determine the above collation sequence, the sequence has not been verified for other versions of W10 or for other versions of Windows.
  • A careful examination of the table reveals that File Explorer sorting is not done strictly by Unicode Value of the symbol/character. Symbols in other Unicode blocks may similarly not be sorted in Unicode Value order, this has not been verified for other code blocks.